Connecting physical things to the internet to monitor and control them according to the requirement using software algorithms is called IoT.
In previous projects, You have learned how to monitor and control physical devices using Arduino or a microcontroller. Now let us see how to connect these to the Internet to monitor and control them over the internet in the following lectures.
NOTE: Before going into IoT you have to be familiar with some basics of network protocols, Internet protocol, and what is Server/Hosts/client, DNS, DHCP, PublicIP and PrivateIP, Packet format of TCP and UDP.
Arduino can be connected to the Internet using Arduino Ethernet shield or WiFi based shields (The most popular shields are esp shields and there are different models available). But this leads to some complex connections and it requires multiple programs and interfacings. But few esp chips can be directly used for monitoring and controlling things just like an Arduino and at the same time, we can also interface it with wifi.
NodeMCU is the most popular board for this case. So In our next lectures, we deal with NodeMCU. You can use any other board as your wish and can do these projects by changing simple lines of code.